Friday, 9 June 2017

Eoliths are Natural! Not on your nelly!

In the last post we looked into patinas on a suspected eolith and I went through some of my observations according to my study on Eoliths and Figure Stones. In this post we will be delving into probability, particularly in parallel features and practically apply the study to some flint finds.

This flint from my find site shows two sets of parallel lines.
Many people have found these rhomboid or diamond shaped stones in connection with figure stones and I have a few from my find site here in Southern England. But is this a natural formation? No, it is not! allow me to explain a little further.
The probability of two randomly placed lines on a flat plane being parallel is zero, that's right! according to mathematics, that popular sciencey thing, there is a zero chance that two randomly placed lines will be parallel, but not impossible. Here is a thread about the boring math equation from StackExchange.
Right so we have categorically established that the stone above is not a natural formation, we have a next to impossible appearance of parallel lines twice in the same find, here is my simple version of the math: 
A nearly impossible probability multiplied by another nearly impossible probability equals a very very very impossible probability. 
But can this be applied to other linear features or alignments in flint finds and eoliths? Yes it can. When face features are in an upright alignment to each other exactly the same math applies, although that does not account for the random creation of a face like feature in the first place, adding an even bigger statistical unlikelihood of it being a natural formation. Readers of my blog will already be aware of face and other features having linear alignments in my finds and most likely there own.

Applying probability and statistics to linear flake removal is another useful tool in debunking eoliths as natural formations, below is a picture featured on Adam Bentons web page Evoanth, quite what or even if he was thinking when writing this post, I do not know?

The eolith is left and accepted tool on the right.
The picture comes from this scientific paper about eoliths here.

I count four linear flake removals (not including retouch and sharpening flakes) in the eolith, one on the reverse (first drawing) and three on the front (second drawing). But these are not perfectly parallel? No, but they are as near as damn it, and we have a third factor to work into our equation, that of depth, our z coordinate, as our flakes (or lines) are not locked to a flat plane as they are in the equation, but we can ignore that as it would only add further improbability, and a probability of zero is already unbeatable. 
There are more things worth noting, firstly, creating a nice long linear flake removal is very difficult, and I am sure many a skilled flint knapper can tell you that, so that's unlikely to be caused by a falling rock or a trampling foot from the outset. Secondly the eolith looks to have been created using the levallois technique, a well known prehistoric process for creating flint tools, the shape created as part of the parent stone, and then removed  with one blow to produce the tool, ready for retouch and sharpening.
So what can we conclude? Many prehistoric flint tools have been ignored and labeled as natural formations most likely because they disprove much of the evolutionary theory of man.

Thursday, 8 June 2017

Rutland Museums Eolith, Flint Tool?, Figure Stone? or Natural?

I recently came across this article on Rutland County Museums web page showing a picture of a suspected eolith, so I contacted Lorraine Cornwell the museums collection manager asking for more details. Lorraine kindly provided measurements, additional photographs and any other details she could find:

Part of the Oakham school collection.
Suspected bronze-age flint hammer stone.
Reassessed as a natural formation.
Dimensions, Length 140mm Width 90mm Depth 50mm (approx)

A subtle elephant motif can be seen facing left (possibly in half or seated configuration) and a partial thumb and nail motif to the right.

When I first saw the picture on the web page I instantly noticed some possible figuration, that of the seated elephant motif and the partial thumb and nail motif. Regular readers of my blog will already know that the combination of elephant and hominid motifs pretty much defines the figure stone phenomena, weather as whole or half elephant,  thumb or hominid face profile, an elephant front leg and hand combination can be seen here.

Thanks to the additional pictures provided I decided to examine this 'eolith' further, to see if it was either a flint tool, a figure stone or just a natural stone with some random flake removals.

I noticed four distinct patinas created by time and flake removal, this was a concern at first, however the patinas all seemed to fit into four separate chronologies, here is what can be observed:

The original cortex of the flint, created when the nodule was formed underground in chalk deposits. (Oldest, Very Ancient) Please note the ocher etching on this surface, inscribed at a later date.

The cortex on the flint eolith, a head profile shape can be seen on the right facing left, small chips to the cortex making the eye, nose, ear, mouth and chin features.

The 'thumb nail' area has a very thick patina on the surface. Created by one flake removal, and another surface below with matching patina from another flake removal. (Very old)

The thick patina can be seen to the left. A front facing head shape can be seen in the micro flaked surface bottom center, slightly left.

The majority of flake removal creating the objects defining shape is of another thinner patina. This surface also defines all of the suspected figuration and the patina matches the edge blade sharpening features. (Old)

 Sharpening flake removal can be seen all along the edge to the right, an ape like face profile can also be seen upper right facing right, and a 3/4 human like face profile top right facing right.

Many tiny flake removals in one localized area, having next to no discernible patina (through use as a bronze-age hammer stone?) (Relatively modern)

 Lower center we can see some more modern small localized flake removals.

The final area of note is that of tiny scaly flake removals, this to me looks very much like that on burned flint, often found in fields of known prehistoric activity and usually described as pot boilers. (Flints heated in a fire and then used by placing them in cooking vessel to heat or cook food, (ancient clay or wooden pots could not withstand direct placement on a fire))
Lower center area looks like it has been burned, very much like a pot boiler.
 
The post was written in order to practically demonstrate my use of flint analysis as described in the previous post Eoliths, Flint Tools and Figure Stones. So is it an artifact, a flint tool, a figure stone, or not? Tell me what you think.

Tuesday, 30 May 2017

Eoliths, flint tools and figure stones.

 Eoliths and  Figure Stones, destroying myths of pareidollia and natural formation. 

This article intends to be an aid in recognizing genuine worked flint stones, eoliths, stone age tools and figure stones. It also addresses the common misconceptions in mainstream archeology that puts forward the opinion that many genuine artifact finds are nothing more than random anomalies produced by nature.

This article is mainly dealing with observations of flint, particularly in the areas of flake removal and patinas, although much of this article can be carried over to other materials,  and the topological, figurative and probability observations stand on there own.

So what are Eoliths?

The word eolith comes from the greek, eos (dawn) and lith (stone), so dawn stone. They are stones that can be found in ancient layers that supposedly predate human or hominid emergence and resemble worked stone tools or figurative depictions. Many eoliths have been recovered and put forward as stone tools, but the current mainstream belief is that these are nothing more than a natural phenomena, natural environmental factors having made recognizable shapes by random chance.

In simple terms what we are dealing with is a complete contradiction of mainstream archeological theory in the field of paleoanthropology. As many eoliths are  indistinguishable from other stone tools and can be found in layers predating accepted mainstream theorized human and ape emergence, by many millions of years.

The drawing on the left is of an eolith, and to the right an accepted flint tool. Readers of my blog may recognize the eolith's figurative topology, although subtle we can see the elephant and front leg depiction, and a concise thumb shape. This is clearly not a natural formation.
(Elephant and front leg depictions can be found throughout the materials displayed on this blog and this is a link to my theory on thumb shapes:- Rule of Thumb, Portable Rock Art)

What are Figure Stones?

Figure stones, sometimes known as pierres figures or portable rock art, are stones that show figurative resemblances, most often of creatures, commonly elephants, birds, bears, felines, apes, monkeys, hominids and humans. They show evidence of working and modification and are thus believed to be manufactured by ancient humans.


In the case of figure stones, accusations of pareidollia or appothenia are put forward to dismiss figurative observations in finds as being imagined and not deliberately created.

Many believe figure stone finds they have found to be genuine prehistoric artworks. In many cases it can be demonstrated that these are in fact genuine worked stone artifacts, which do indeed show numerous figurative descriptions.  For the most part mainstream archeology does not accept them.

Again, these can be a contradiction to mainstream theory as the creature motifs depicted can fall out of time line with the theory of the evolution of man and the emergence of cognition producing the oldest figurative works of art.

To long won't read?

In short many Eoliths are genuine stone tools found in tertiary layers, They are no different from other recognized stone tools accepted and on display in museums all over the world, the only difference being is that these are not in line with current evolutionary theory, ape and man emergence timelines. Topology, flake removal, blade retouch, bulbs of percussion and surface patina prove they are genuine artifacts and not geofacts. Many figure stones are also genuine pieces of prehistoric art, many observations prove the validity of my own finds, the most potent of which is topology and probability, but flake removal and deliberate modification also prove they are artifacts in there own right. So accusations of pareidollia can be instantly dismissed, the objects have been manufactured, if its not a picture of an elephant then what is it?

Lessons for mainstream paleoanthropology and archeology :-  

When the facts don't fit the theory, don't dismiss the facts but change the theory.

O'rly? So Eoliths are genuine artifacts?

Firstly I am not going to claim that all stones that have been recognized to be tools or sculptured figure stones are genuine artifacts, however nearly all that fit my criteria and recognized topology are genuine stone tools or prehistoric works of art.

Flints that show flake removal, retouch and shape topology have been dismissed in archeology and paleoanthropology  as a natural occurrence.  Environmental effects such as, trampling, geological stressors, tides, wave action and other means are claimed to produce tool shapes, these often appear to show blade flake removal, and shape adherence no different from other recognized flint tools. There is no evidence that natural effects can or have produced stones that would otherwise fall into the category of worked stone tools.

Debunking the archeological stand point of 'Eoliths are natural formations.' and images on Figure stones as pareidollia . We are going to examine patina, flake removal, topology, probability, pareidollia , tar and ocher.

Signs of working and modification?

Two common stand points for assessing flint objects as being worked are the presence of these:

1. Bulbs of percussion and con-cordial fractures.

2. Repeated flake removal scars on the flattened surfaces of the flint.

Unfortunately it really is not as simple as that, although they may both be good indicators for some standard shaped tool production, many  modified stones do not have those indicators. Here are some problems with only using those two 'rules' to assess flints as artifacts.

1. Not all flint modifications are 'standard', cortex removal and sculpting do not show bulbs or con-cordial fractures. Grinding to produce cupules or holes does not produce con-cordial fractures or bulbs of percussion.

2. Bulbs of percussion are often made as a result of large flake removal, the basic shape of the tool being made with a blow to a prepared area of the flint. Not all worked stones fit that basic tool shape topology, and the basic shape is not made with a single large blow producing the bulb of percussion.

3. Con-cordial fractures can be covered by patinas, the ripples are covered by a build up of a thick layer on the surface of the flint.

4. Many flint tools recognized as such and in museums or collections do not show bulbs of percussion.

5. Repeating flake removal scaring on flat surfaces is about thinning, shaping and sharpening of a common tool shape, not all working in flint is aimed at producing those shapes, so those repeating flake scars may not be present.

Other signs on artifacts?

I have observed iron patches, etchings and staining on many flint tools, this is not there by chance, I usually refer to this as ocher, as it covers all of the types of this material, weather from applied natural deposits, prepared materials or iron rich meteorites.  Prehistoric peoples are well renowned for there use of ocher, and patches, etchings or staining can be found on the majority of recognized prehistoric flint tools of certain age.

So why are ocher etchings on flint a sign of genuine artifactuality, and not there by random chance? Quite simply, sustained, localized, and precise linear pressure from an iron rich source needs to be applied to the surface of the flint in order to produce an ocher etched line, this is clearly not a natural phenomena, and many times there are many such ocher lines on individual finds.

The photo of this fossilized echinoderm shows an example of ocher etching, the dark lines in the center of the fossil were produced by sustained force in multiple strokes from an iron rich 'stylus'. This surface find was likely dug from deep chalk deposits while mining flint, this type of fossil has other uses besides decorative or figurative, they make excellent hammer stones.

Another common feature in my figurative finds is the presence of what looks to be a tar like substance, prehistoric people are known to have made birch tar.  This appears to have been used as an aid in figurative design, rather like we would use paint today, other paint like substance may also have been used, this certainly appears to be the case, and there are even signs that such materials have become petrified into the patina on the surface of some of the finds.


This flint tool shows a manufactured ape face description, the eye shape is made up of numerous tiny flake removal scars, but has a form of paint been used for the other more colorful areas of the face? The paint now being petrified into the patina? Numerous examples of finds like this from my site would suggest so.

 Many tiny flake removal scars were used to create an eye shape in this flint tool, presumably so that the application of a tar like substance would produce good adhesion to the surface.

Patina on genuine artifacts, and examining flake removal.

Patinas naturally build up over large time periods on flint surfaces, this is one key feature in determining validation of eoliths as manufactured, and ruling out almost all natural excuses in tool shape creation from these stand points.

1. Flints are naturally formed in nodules, chalk sealed, these being completely cortex covered, so any flake removal of the cortex would indicate some kind of physical action in order to have done so, natural or intended.  These show little evidence of large flake removal, or disturbance  and all broken pieces are present, although breakage is uncommon.

2. Genuine artifacts should have a mainly coherent patina, not many differing patinas on differing surfaces. However, sometimes a stone can be rediscovered, reworked and reused, which can cause anomaly's in patinas, this would not be a common occurrence.

3. An even surface patina on removed surfaces suggest no flake removal since the original occurrences having happened. So a patina has built up with no further flake removal, over some considerable amount of time.

4. Probability rules out a sequence of natural events having produced multiple flake removal scars in one proximal time period, As no further flake removal scars have happened since. Multiple flake removal scars having happened in one small and distant chronology.

5. The fact that another natural? occurrence of flake removal is absent from such ancient pieces would indicate that random, chance and natural flake removal on flint pieces is rare.

6. Crashing wave action, water flow rolling on flints produces a worn effect where tiny flakes are removed over large periods of time, shapes are worn to produce pebbles, they are evidence of absence of large flake removal, and a close sequences of large flake removal events due to crashing waves, tide action and friction in these conditions.

7. Erosion, removal or a violent gravitational effect on flint nodules from any resting place would also be a rare event, if a flake or sequence of flake removal scars happened, patinas would also encapsulate that event. Linear and logical flake removal does not happen in this way. This can be tested, if someone was to repeatedly drop nodules off cliffs or roll them down hills, although that in itself would be intent and agency, and not a natural event.

This flint tool from my find site has some damage, a flake has broken off revealing the underlying flint material and the thickness of the patina. From my observations of flint tools of certain age, patina build up is a very slow process, microns of thickness being formed over  hundreds of thousands of years. A thick patina like the one shown would suggest huge antiquity in order of tens of millions of years. 

Conclusions on patinas.

Flints contain stratigraphy in the form of layered patinas.

Natural large flake removal is a rare event in flint. Collectors and museums hold many flint tools that demonstrate this because they have an even patina, are unbroken or further chipped (out of a creation and usage timelines.). Weathering, tide action and other natural phenomena has not produced further large flake removal. So a short succession of multiple flake removals made the shape of the item, which then over time was covered with a patina, the patina is unbroken and no other effects have produced flake removal. This counts massively towards recognizing genuine artifactuality and we can produce statistics for probability.

Examining Probability and Statistics.

Let us suppose a hypothetical scenario to test some likelihood of a success condition in the generation of a naturally occurring random eye shape. I will only use a few elements to simplify all possible scenarios.

Elements:

1. A flat round surface, this represents a surface on a stone.

2. A randomly placed spot shape, this represents part of an eye feature and a hypothetical circular flake removal.

3. A randomly placed curve shape, this represents the other part of the hypothetical eye feature, again an imagined natural event.

A success scenario occurs when the condition of a spot falling directly under the curve, with the curves ends downwards and diametrically adjacent to any edge of the circle. This would produce an eye shape on a head shape that could be interpreted as a simple, and almost featureless side on face profile.

If we run the test once, we can see on one circle, with one spot and one curve, a success condition is very very unlikely. If we repeatedly make random spots and curves eventually a success condition will be met, but we will see that a large number of unwanted conditions are present, hypothetical natural flake removal events. One has to wonder how often random natural flake removals happen in stones? And if they did happen, only those proximal in time would leave an even surface patina.

When we factor in other elements such as mouth, ear, nose, nostril, hair and correct shape, the likely hood of success is very minuscule. But there are millions upon millions of stones? surely one would produce the highly unlikely chance of a complete recognizable face profile? Maybe, but I don't look through billions and billions of stones to find a repeat topology in my figure stone finds, I actually collect them very quickly without to much concern for shape beyond the obvious, mainly looking for numerous flake removal, then carry them home, and check properly for figuration afterwards.

Similar scenarios can be imagined for linear parallel flake removal scars, involving imagined lines through a hypothetical sphere requiring two pairs of x,y,z coordinates, again a parallel condition is highly unlikely.  Even a scenario involving three spots on a flat plane being proximal and aligned is a hard condition to reach, and would simulate and demonstrate that a natural hypothetical blade sharpening scenario is incredibly unlikely.

What is important to remember here is not only the unlikelihood of a success condition in shape generation, but the absence of unwanted features and no observable difference in the chronology of those events being visible in the patina.

 From a statistical perspective a natural creation of a face depiction being present on this stone is highly unlikely, close to impossible.
 
Blade edge sharpening and shaping.

Violent breakage of flint can produce sharp flakes, that could be used as blade tools, however a small series of flake removals along an edge is almost certainly always a manufactured attempt at blade sharpening. Blade sharpening and retouch flake removal like characteristics do not occur naturally, suggesting that this is a natural phenomena is a akin to suggesting a brick wall is a natural phenomena. Patina consistency and individual linear flake removal scars would be very strong evidence of artificiality rather than natural phenomena.

Another flake removal scaring phenomena is that of parallel linear flake removal, believe it or not, this topology has in some cases been described as a natural  formation, this goes beyond any common sense or cognitive reasoning of the proponents of such opinions, even two parallel flake removal scars are improbable of being natural.
 
Topology and Repeating Conventions

The only 'naturally worked' shape topology to be found in un-modified flints are the rounded oval shapes of pebbles. Flint tools and figure stones show there own man made topology, this topology is proof of design and manufacture.

1. Throughout art history a repeating topology of technique is shown, that of side profiles of the subjects to be depicted, in most cases this is exactly what figure stones show, side on profiles, and not just one side on profile in each example, but many.

2. My figurative pieces contain many detailed eye shapes, these are produced by a sequence of agency effects, multiple actions in a small area to produce an eye shape, and almost always as part of a more detailed figurative description. Naturally occurring eye shapes are a rare phenomena in stones, let alone the fact that in my finds they are often accompanied by detailed ear shapes, nose shapes mouth shapes and repeating subject profiles. Eye shapes are not always flaked, in many finds tar and ocher are used rather like paint, these are both known to have been used ubiquitously by prehistoric peoples.

3. Many figure stones stand upright, and when in an upright position the figurative descriptions are also upright, this is clearly by design. Many figure stones that don't stand have upright descriptions when the stones longest dimension is vertical. Rotating the stone around  its longest dimension in its vertical position often displays a series of upright figurative descriptions.

4. Many figure stones show numerous creature descriptions, each having numerous facial or bodily feature representations. These can often be recognized as being of known creatures, probability validates authenticity.

5. The same repeating subjects and popular motifs can be found across numerous individual samples, we have common theme's and this again is statistically unlikely to have anything to do with random chance.

6. Repeating combinations can be found, for example the elephant and front leg motif can easily be combined with the thumb motif, this blog has many examples of a repeating pattern of combined creature motifs across numerous samples. This is another set of unlikely probabilities that have an observable topology.

7. Over all basic outline and shape topologies are present, just compare the eolith picture at the beginning of the post to the other shapes shown in the post Rule of Thumb, some very close shape matches can be seen.  These can also contain sub sets of topologies, for example the thumb nail shape and elephant eye shape being present and correctly aligned and located.

Pareidollia and Apothenia.

Many topologies, probability, flake removal, intended modifications etc. have already ruled out pareidolia as a possibility in my finds. However I have found this excellent video by Danny Wilten and other contributors, which will help educate in this field.

  
Conclusions.

Many eoliths and figure stones are manufactured items, the details and points raised in this article prove it beyond any shadow of doubt. I also have video evidence of an artwork find being removed from stratified layers dating well into the cretaceous period, that's over 65 million years old according to scientific dating of the layers. Not only that, the find is part of a recognizable and repeating topology, an artifact in its own right, just like a bike, a wall or a mobile phone, the item is manufactured and conforms to an observable set or rules.

Figure stones are a sculptured record that contain a vast wealth of information about fauna in any given stratified layer, archeologists, paleontologists and researchers who wish to know the truth about our distant past would be fools to ignore such detailed environmental information.

Monday, 3 April 2017

Figure stones, Mystery solved? Unlikely!

Some very interesting observations of mine through my journey into the truth behind the figure stone phenomena has lead me to some quite interesting conclusions.

Here are some observations based on interpretation of figure stone motifs:

Gorillas, apes and monkeys were all present in Southern England.
Ancient Humans in Southern England were clothed while apes and elephants etc. were present.
A verity of Hominids were present alongside ancient Humans in Southern England.
The sculptors of figure stones were highly intelligent.
The sculptors of figure stones were very skilled artists and flint nappers.
Tortoise and dinosaurs were present at some point during the history of figure stone usage.
Figure stones were in use across vast periods of time.
Figure stones have common conventions and motifs that ignore current continental boundaries.
  
Large scale observation of such finds and investigation conclude that this is the most vibrant and detailed historical account, capturing artistic interpretations of creatures from our ancient past. A stratified collection of figure stones would be an amazing window in to the creatures, environment, and hopes and fears of some very ancient artists.

Undoubtedly portable rock art finds can be recovered preserved in ancient strata, or rolled and warn from gravel pits, beach and riverbed finds, again suggesting great antiquity. Making observations through the fossil record and applying them to interpretations of creature motifs would also suggest great age to many finds.

Repeating practices such as poly-iconic artworks, motif combination, iconic convention (head, or half body side profiles.)  individual motif ubiquity, pigment usage (ocher, tar), material usage (flint in my finds), working techniques, tool fashioning, shape topology,  statistical and probability analysis proves beyond any doubt the validity of my figure stone finds as ancient works of art.

The world wide picture brings more interesting observation, motif combinations, iconic convention, and motif ubiquity, these suggest a past where prehistoric peoples spanned much of earth using stone artworks to communicate ideas, suggestions, observations, or instructions. Such observations also imply a recorded link between prehistoric peoples of great antiquity, that of figurative communication, common convention and motif usage .

Here are some conclusions drawn from common theory vs figure stone investigation:

Out of Africa, according to the 'official' time line --- false
Emergence of apes, and such in Africa by the 'official' timeline --- false
Mans emergence circa 200kbp --- false
The worlds oldest figurative artworks were created 40kbp --- false
Divergence, human-gorilla split 10 million years ago --- false
Ape emergence 25-30 million years ago --- false
Highly intelligent and artistic peoples separated  in time from the dinosaurs --- false
Current mainstream paleo-anthropological theory --- false

It's worth considering that one genuine out of time find would be compelling evidence that all human anthropology in terms of evolutionary study is entirely false. The blog posts of some of my finds are evidence of just such a scenario. Is it any wonder that Archeologists that were paid millions of pounds to carry out there investigations in Africa would be unwilling to accept there findings as entirely false? Ergo, the same Archaeologists would not accept evidence that totally disproves there work and theories? Of course that would be entirely unscientific of them.

The problems with interpretation of figure stone motifs is that we can never be entirely certain that what we see is an artistic attempt at what we have interpreted, however the more accurate a likeness and the more of the same likeness we have, the more confident we can be in our interpretations. As an example below I have included an interpretation of a creature motif shown in these two finds, these are two out of three I have showing the suspected creature, which is hardly conclusive, unlike my elephant and ape interpretations.

 Above: A head profile shape can be seen facing left in the top right of this flint tool, complete with eye, ear, muzzle and mouth, the mouth is just above and to the right of the fossil sea shell.

 Above: A very similar head profile shape can be interpreted from the picture above this, facing left.

Despite the shape and feature likeness in the two stones above, another interesting thing can be interpreted -mushrooms. Both creature motifs could be interpreted as eating a mushroom, the fossil shell in the upper picture could be interpreted as showing a mushroom, and both are close to the interpreted mouth features of the creature motifs.

Both of the stones are worked and flake removal and shaping go beyond conventional attempts at creating cutting tools, so I would obviously suggest that flake removal and working is an attempt to create figurative likenesses, as both stones show many of these, and obviously that is what my entire figure stone collection shows, multiple motifs worked into single stones.

Above: An artistic impression of a Chalicotherium from Ark Encounter
More can be read in this Wiki.

Above: Another Artistic impression of Chalicotherium
Thanks to Dmitry Bogdanov.
As you can see the head profile of the above artistic impression very closely matches the image pointed out in the flint tool, and a reasonable likeness can be seen in the second flint artwork find. Chalicotherium was last believed to have lived some 3.6MYA and also known to be vegetarian, the purpose of the mushroom like shape perhaps?  However, this interpretation is not at all conclusive, even if both were accepted as intended artistic attempts at creating creature likeness impressions, the interpretations would be seen as subjective.

Monday, 13 March 2017

400000 Year old Neandethal Tools Suggest they were not responsable for Figure Stone production.

A new Article on Phys.Org reveals a funerary Neanderthal site in Portugal dated to 400kbp. Take a look at the biface tool finds in the picture below. Do they look like figure stones? Can you see any possible face profiles or animal motifs? In my opinion very little possible figuration can be seen, and the tools look entirely utilitarian (although I would argue that motifs are utilitarian also.) As I have pointed out before, us (sapiens sapiens) are the only known creators of figurative art, all other figurative items linked to neanderthals could just have easily been stolen by them or attributed wrongly.

Another Interesting point in the article is a quote from Quam, an associate professor of anthropology at Binghamton University, State University of New York.:-
 "The Aroeira cranium is the oldest human fossil ever found in Portugal and shares some features with other fossils from this same time period in Spain, France and Italy. The Aroeria cranium increases the anatomical diversity in the human fossil record from this time period, suggesting different populations showed somewhat different combinations of features."

This may suggest that the Neanderthals were not fully settled genetically, and these differences are due to crossbreeding with sapiens sapiens or others grouped under the homo genus.


Thursday, 2 March 2017

Is Sinai 361 a Figure Stone?

Sinai 361 is one of a collection of  stone tablet's, reportedly showing the first ever alphabet. Written in ancient Hebrew and derived from Egyptian Hieroglyphs the 22 letter alphabet is apparently the worlds first. The inscriptions on Sinai 361 have been translated by Dr. Petrovich as:

'Our bound servitude had lingered. Moses then provoked astonishment. It is a year of astonishment, because of the Lady.'

But could the script be written on a Figure Stone?  it certainly looks that way to me, check the right of the picture below, and a simple face profile can be seen, furthermore two more 'combined features' ape like faces can be seen front on, below the face profiles 'eye' feature, this is a stacked face configuration, detailed numerous times on this blog.  The bottom left also matches ape like face profiles seen in my own figurative examples. No doubt more could be seen with better photos and more angles of this piece.


If this is a Figure Stone, and then later inscribed with the first ever alphabet, derived from Egyptian Hieroglyphs, what a bizarre piece showing the evolution of visual communication.

Further Reading : Daily Mail

Monday, 20 February 2017

Portable Rock Art - Flogging A Dead Horse?

Today's Eolith's post on Portable Rock Art is about horse head motifs, these all come from my usual find site. I have shared quite a few figurative examples of worked stones showing suspected horse artworks.

 A very good horse head likeness can be seen in this flint tool, this artifact contains many other motifs, just like almost all the finds displayed on this blog.

In this old post, the horse head motif almost instantly turns into an impression that looks very much like the head of a Tyrannosaurs Rex (The theory of revolution) and there are more extinct creature impressions to be seen in the stone as well (UK Tortoise - extinct for roughly 35 million years)

One of the key features of the horse head motif found in my figure stones, is the 'mane' feature, many of them have it. Perhaps this is one of the key visual indicators, or 'triggers' used to produce the impression for these prehistoric peoples, or just to make a distinction between another creature with a similar head shape?

The uncluttered flint sculpture below shows the second 'eye' feature just above and to the left of the other one and, also a curved 'muzzle' and 'mouth' impression (mouth along bottom edge), this leaves us with four possible combinations, or ways to view the suspected creature impressions. Pick an 'eye' and pick a 'muzzle' and see for yourselves. 

This piece from the previous post is not quite right either, mane, muzzle, ear and profile shape features are all good, but when it comes to choosing a feature for the 'eye' nothing seems to quite fit properly, and we end up with either a dinosaur head impression, or art intending to show the head of an eagle, or something like it.

The worked flint piece below, shows the double sided impression of a seated horse.

 The next two pictures are of the same find, I believe the item was hafted using the hole shown in the second picture. Although that would produce something similar to an axe, I'm not of the opinion that it would be very useful for chopping trees, and was more likely a weapon, the blade area is on the lower area of the 'mane'. The photo below is lacking many details, only one of which is the ocher etched 'eye'.


Below are some more worked flint finds from my site, many do seem to roughly translate as to being the horse head motif, although they could just as easily be descriptions of other creatures, some look more like dinosaur impressions or possibly other creature motifs.









Thursday, 16 February 2017

Figure Stones - Simple Genus

The last post here on Eoliths was a highly complex piece of stone art, showing numerous face profiles, at least 5 bears, many hominids, many complete apes, more than one half canine, even half a tortoise and the good old elephant front leg glyph can be seen, I will compile a list at some point and share via my Google Plus.

This post is about the simple figure stone's or portable rock art finds, and how the proto language evolved into a much simpler form, well at least there is evidence that something in the prehistoric 'evolved', even if it was only communication.

 The next five pictures below are of the same flint find from my usual hunting grounds, there is just enough detail in the piece to make up nearly all of the most common glyphs, and even if details were missing, the outline may suffice to be of use to someone who was well aware of the communication technique.

Above: A simple bear head glyph facing right.

 Above: Another bear glyph right, and a horse head glyph facing left, note the white flint representing the mane and darkened muzzle area. 

 Above: The good old elephant and front leg motif, note how turning the stone 1/4 counter clockwise a simplified thumb motif can be seen pointing right.

Above: An ape face motif to the left, and a bird motif to the right. You may also notice a face likeness in the center of the stone.

 The YouTube video below shows a collection of some of those Indian Effigy Stones, these could all have been used in a very similar way, very briefly at 4:37 you will see the stone has a chip for a 'thumb nail' and is very thumb shaped. I am not of the opinion that Indians from there supposed occupational time line made these items, although that does not mean that Indians of a much earlier date didn't. If you are unaware of my views on the thumb motif refer to this post (Portable Rock Art - Rule of Thumb) I have added a picture or two since originally posting.

The Video above is provided by William Shira.

Tuesday, 14 February 2017

Portable Rock Art - Complex Cognition

By now many readers of Eoliths blog and collectors alike have managed to pick up the gist of this art form, and are able to read a good amount of the portable rock art common lexicon, so it's about time I introduced some of the more complex pieces I have been holding back. These have many glyphs view-able from many angles, and are most often hominid based, showing an array of head profiles of ape like's and sometimes even sapiens sapiens face descriptions, or very close cousins. 

One thing I have noted is that these more complex figure stones quite often have a tesseract (an inverse tetrahedron) as shown in these two posts (Two Faced Figure Stone) and (Portable Rock Art - Elephant and Hominin). This piece, besides the many face profiles, has quite a few animal front half descriptions, this convention is becoming well know thanks to my input, and many of you have your own pieces.

To get the most of this piece (well, what is being displayed) will take some effort, this time I will save on my writing and allow readers to decode the stone themselves. A few clues: three different mammal front half's motifs can be found, some hominid face profiles are stacked one upon another, at least seven can be seen, and if you spot the 'gnome' your probably a first class reader. You will also likely see things that I have not yet.








Wednesday, 25 January 2017

Portable Rock Art - Open Mouthed Monkey

Another one of my finds from the secret location here in Southern England. Only three things can easily be interpreted in this stone, the most interesting of which is the open mouthed chimp like depiction. This could also be interpreted in the previous post and in the cretaceous portable rock art find. Tiny micro fractures were used in the cortex of the flint in order to chip away and create the eye features.